27th May 2024  admin  Category :

Wefti uu hogaaminayey Wasiir kuxigeenka wasaaradda arimaha Gudaha Dawladda Puntland Maxamed Musadaq Maxamed ayaa tegay magaalada mindigale ee gobolka sanaag Halkaas oo roob dabaylo watay oo dhawaan ka da,ay uu waxyeeleeyey Guryo Beelo iyo Dhismayaal kale

2 thoughts on “Mindigale, Puntland

  1. raage

    Sooyaalka Saldanadii Harti Koonfureed Ee Jubbaland British Protectorate .Very important information. A history of early Jubaland, 600 page dissertation. The Pastoral Tribes of Northern Kenya 1800-1916 The most interesting thing for me was the heavy focus on the Harti in Jubaland. The Harti apparently had territory extending from the mouth of the Juba at Gobwen, up to Yonte and bordered the Bantu up the river. In 1868, a few Mijertein Hert i arrived from Berbera by sea and settled at Kismayu in order to trade, “much ■2 to the disgust of other Somali”, according to Christie. They were later strengthened by further contingents arriving over-land and, in alliance with the Ogaden f ran Afmadu, they were able to drive off the Tunni to the north as well as the Galla remnants to the south. ^ The Galla presented no further problem as they t©re clearly unable to offer further resistance, but the position of the~Tunni . was different. They were not only quite strong, but they also had powerful allies to whom they could turn in times of need, and the following year, helped by the VJazegua Wagosha and Elai Rahanwein, they attacked both the Herti and the Ogaden. The Tunni were once again defeated. However, this time the fight had been close, and they now turned to Ahmed Yusuf, the powerful Sheik of Geledi, for the assistance they needed to overcome the Darod In 1870 Yusuf headed an alliance that defeated the Herti and drove them back to Kismayu. Their defeat might have been serious if the Mijertein had not previously sought the help of the Governor of Lamu 2who, coming to their aid, had enabled them to hold the town. until in 1878 the Herti were pushed back to the south of the river. Part of the delay can probably be explained by the tensions that developed between the Herti and the Arabs in 1880, when the Wali accepted a flag from a Freneh ship that had called at Kismayu. The Herti destroyed the flag and killed an Arab asl-cari. Threatened by the garrison, they refused to cooperate and, after a Herti had been killed, general fighting broke out, with only the Osman Mahmoud and the Muhammad Ismail sections of the Herti 2 trying to keep on good terms with the Grovernor. The re-building and occupation
    . Thus, when in 1881 the Sultan decided that Griumbo should be re-occupied and asked for assistance from the Herti, the latter refused and it was the Muhammad Zubeir Ogaden who offered their support.This action on the part of the Muhammad Zubeir led to a bitter
    schism between them which lasted for many years. Although as early as 1873 Kirk had noticed two distinct settlements of Somali around Kismayu, the Herti and the Ogaden, the 2© had been no more than the usual rivalry between them and on many occasions they had helped each other in their struggles against the Tunni. Now, however, their rivalry was based on a blood feud since Muhammad Ismail, head of the Herti, had committed suicide after being arrested by the Arabs and their Ogaden allies. Ali Nahar, one of the most respected
    Ilerti, escapedjdetention and the Herti revolted, attacking the Mali’s house at Kismayu. The Arabs succeeded in stationing fifty troops at Gobwen, on the river Juba, but they were exp osed to frequent 1attacks tom the Herti. The fighting continued till 1884» when the Wall tried to make 2 peace on the terms of the Herti. Then, at about the time that the Kismayu garrison was being doubled, Ce©chi, an Italian explorer who had been sent an an official mission to East Africa, arrived at Zanzibar and asked for a concession of the mouth of the river Juba, on condition that the revenue from eustoms|duties was divided equally between Zanzibar and the Italian Government. This request was rejected brusquely, though later Italy was to claim that it had in fact 2been accepted. But growing European interest in the East African mainland also led in 1886 to the appointment of a Joint delimitation 3 Commission, which visited the coast in an attempt to ascertain the limits of the Sultan’s dominions. On the 24th March they visited ICismayu and heard evidence frm the Somali chiefs about their relationship with the Sultan, as they understood it. The questions and answers offer a fascinating glimpse of Somali cunning and some indication of how completely they controlled the situation. Q. does ICismayu belong to the Sultan Said Barghash? A. You can see his flag. Q. Are you subjects of ihe Sultan? A. We would prefer to give you an answer tonight. Q. tell us simply if you o bey the orders of the Multan,yes or no? A. In the town cf Kismayu we obey him; outside it is another matter; we will see .b&a^ later. Q. The country between Kismayu and the river Juba, does it belong to the Sultan or to the Somalis? A. Why do you ask us that question^ Q. We want to know if this country belongs to the Sultan and if you obey him. Answer us that. A. If it is a question of a good thing we obey him, if it is a bad thing we don’t obey him. Q. Gan the Sultan’s soldiers go from here to Lamu without being attacked? A, If there is no war theycan pass. Q. Are you satisfied with the way In which the Pul tan is established at Kismayu? A, The Sultan is in the town; we are outside; there is peace between us. To Kitchener, whowas the British representative on the Commission, “the Somali chiefs at Kismayu appeared on examination 2 to be doubtfully loyal subjects of the Sultan cf Zanzibari’ The mistake Kitchener made, however, was to imagine that the Somali had ever been “subjects” of the Sultan, and the last sentence of their testimony summed up their relationship with the garrison perfectly. It indicated that the Sultan’s writo was confined to ■the walls of the town and, whenever attenpts were made to prove that the Somali lived within the Sultan’s dominions, the evidence always turned, in one form or another, on the minuscule presence of an Arab force at Kismayu. It was here that the Somali paid. 1880s lay in the latter* s attempt to maintain a closer control over the local trade up the Juba rivei|)y building a fort at its mouth. As the main traders, the Herti had the most to lose, but there was in fact another quite different reason. At a time of increasing contact between the coa&t and visiting European ships, the Somali were concerned about their own relationship with European agents and the^were determined to secure their own bargaining positions. The possibility that Zanzibar might utilise the friendly assistance of a European power to increase its own authprity was feared and visits from foreign ships were generally greeted with suspicion. Somali reaction to foreign visitors at Kismayu or at the mouth of the xiver Juba had never been encouraging, even at the best of times.
    https://eprints.soas.ac.uk/29105/1/10731200.pdf?fbclid=IwAR1omluPQk6KkHAPTlwn-lU7n0I94-0i0dNCmVkKhjh5tbgSYlhNBSlZBx8

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  2. raage

    Turton, Edmund R. (1970) The pastoral tribes of Northern Kenya 1800-1916. PhD thesis. SOAS University of London. When Denhardt visited Kismayu in 1885, Sheik Ali Nahar of the Mijertein signed a treaty ceding all his land in return 1 for “large gratuities”. A few years later the same land was once again ceded to Dr. Juhlke after suitable payment, and when the 2Italians afterwards visited Kismayu the performance was repeated. By 1889 the Imperial British East Africa Company (i.B.E.A.Co.) https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-pastoral-tribes-of-northern-Kenya%2C-1800-1916-Turton/e65ce25a8356cbd05d24cdf5c1eba52feb325f30?fbclid=IwAR3ITzrWmG5NbNN5YHUlXQw8lIhzaLHOjp6GfUF88VBT0se231Qf2fhBS2w

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