9th April 2020  admin  Category :

The Issue of Human Rights Violation in the Dialogue between Somalia and Self-declared Somaliland

The Isaaq clan of the self-declared Somaliland is, like the other Somali clans, a divided clan that is composed of fractious and competing sub-clans. What binds these unruly Isaaq sub-clans is the illusion of the self-declared Somaliland recognition by the international community as a separate state. Thus the traditional rivalry and propensity for violence is curtailed during the search for the recognition.

Further, the Somali National Movement (SNM) justified the secession by putting the blame for the human right violations in the Northwest Region not just on the Somali Government but also on all Somali clans other than the Isaaq. They claim these violations to be genocide committed against Isaaq clan by the Somali Government with the support and connivance of other Somali clans. SNM fostered a mindset among the members of the Isaaq clan that regarded anyone (all other clans) other than Isaaq as being associated with the government and therefore an enemy.

This distortion of history was and is designed to gain the support of the Isaaq clan for separation from the rest of Somalia. In addition, the self-declared Somaliland is claiming the Warsangeli, Dhulbahante, Samaron and Issa clans to be part of their entity. Therefore to further their secessionist aspirations, the self-declared Somaliland is seeking acknowledgement from the Somali Federal Government and from the international community that genocide was committed against Isaaq clan. However this warped view of the events since the military came to power in 1969 and thereafter must be corrected.

The fact remains that all Somalis suffered human right violations under the military regime. The Isaaq clan was not the first to be singled out for persecution. The members of Isaaq clan were pillars of the regime during its heyday. They held prominent positions in every facet of the institutions of the Somali State. Isaaq army and security officials spearheaded the persecution of the Majerteyn clan in Mudug, Nugaal and Bari regions after the failed coup of 1978 that was led by Abdulahi Yusuf, who served as the elected President of the Transitional Federal Government between 2004 and 2008.

The Somali National Movement (SNM), after its formation, attacked and committed human right violations against the Ogaden refugees in the camps around Hargeisa and against the nomads of Warsangeli, Dhulbahante and Samaron clans in Sanaag, Sool and Awdal regions. SNM attacked the village of Hingalool, Sanaag region, on July1989. The names of some of those murdered are in LIST A. In the same month SNM burchered 50 civilianc at Hudun , Sool region.
At the collapse of the central government, the SNM committed atrocities against the Ogaden refugee and the civilian population of other clans who were in Hargeisa, Burao and Erigabo. Similarly, Somali army officers and soldiers who surrendered were summarily executed and others disappeared from the detention camps.

SNM raided villages and towns in Sool, Sanaag and Awdal regions massacring many defenseless civilians. In Febuary 1991 SNM attacked Shimbiraaley, Dawa Weene, Armale (List B), Damala Hagare(List C), Ceel Buh(list D) in Sanaag Region butchering civilians and looting their property.

During February 1991, SNM soldiers armed with heavy artillery and rockets bombarded the city of Borama and the towns of Dilla and Abdulkadir in the Awdal Region.The civilian casualty was estimated to number more than more than six hundered ( 600).In March 1991 another raid in Karamaan in Sool Region by SNM resulted in the death of eighty four (84) civilians. In April 1991 SNM massacred eighteen (18) elders,woman and children, whose names are in LIST E, in the town of Hadaaftimo, Sanaag Region. In addition they fired bazookas indiscriminately at residential homes. In May 1991 SNM attacked Damala Haggare and murdered over 33 civilians whose names are in LIST F

Further the self-declared Somaliland continues to commit human right violations in Sool, Sanaag and AwdalRegions

President Farmajo, the president of Somalia has apologised,in February 2020, for the atrocities committed by the former regime of Siad Barre against the Issaq Clan but the authorities in Hargeysa are still in denial regarding the atrocities committed by the SNM against the civilians and nomads of Sanaag, Sool and Awdal regions. On this note, it is upon the Somali Federal Government and the international community to:
● Reject the notion that genocide has been committed against Isaaq clan;

● Condemn all human right violations and atrocities committed by the Somali Government in Somalia before 1991;

● Condemn also all human right violations and atrocities committed by armed groups/ militias/organisations against civilian population throughout Somalia before, during and after 1991; and

● Investigate all human right violations and atrocities so as to bring the culprits to justice and reject any compensation.

SNM ATROCITIES IN SANAAG REGION OF NORTHERN SOMALIA

LIST A: Names of Civilians killed by SNM At Hingalool on July 1989

1. Mohamud Farah Weyne and his son, Bah Yabare

2. Ali Warsame Farah Ciroobe, Bihidoor

3. Calin Warsame Farah Ciroobe, Bihidoor

4. Sofi Ahmed Ali Dalab, Reer Salah

5. Faisal Said Ali Waraabe, Bihidoor

6. Ismail Diriye Hassan Bile, Bihidoor

7. Basra Mohamed Askar, Bihidoor

8. Halimo Muse Ali Carre, Bihidoor

9. Abdirahman Said Burale(askari),Reer Salah

10. Abdullahi Haji Jama ( gadhweyso), Adan Yaqoob

11. Ahmed Jama Ali Shire, Bihidoor

12. Ahmed Mohamud Hassan ( Xumaan), Reer Salah

13. Yusuf Jama Ali Koor,

14. Yusuf Lula, Reer Salah

15. Ismail Jama, Adan Yaqoob

16. Hawo Hersi Farah, Bah Majeerteyn

17. Diriye Farah Dirir, Ogayslabe

18. Shire Jama daad, Warlabe,

19. Abdi Said Warsame( gurage), Reer Haji

20. Abdullahi Musa Ciise

21. A. Abdullahi M. Hirad

22. Hawa Ali Jama

23. Mahamed Warsame Qalabi

24. Haji Mohamud Farah

25. Ahmed Yusuf Hassan

26. Mahamed S. Habalaq

27. Said Mohamud Hassan

LIST B: Names of civilians Killed In CARMALE By SNM on February 1991

1. Abdi Warsame Hagar

2. Ahmed Warsame Hagar

3. Mohamed Hassan Adan

4. Ceegar warsame Hagar

5. Ahmed Hassan Adan

6. Osman Mohamud Afdhal

7. Abdullahi Hassan Ali

8. Ahmed Salah Hagar

9. Amina Ali Geldoon

10. Ahmed Abdi Shire

11. Ali Mohamed Ali, 2 year old child

12. Ahmed Jama Faruur

13. Osman Ali Kanje

14. Ali Mohamed Haji Mohamud

15. Adan Said Toohyare

16. Abdi Ibrahim Ceegag

17. Fandhe Farah Duale

18. Said Hassan Bulqas

LIST C: Names of Civilians Killed at DAMALA HAGARE By SNM on February 1991

1.Farah Haji Abdi

2. Abdi Adan Jama Fadal

3. Ali Adan Jama Fadal

4. Mohamud Ahmed Farah

5. Hassan Ahmed Omar

6. Omar Ali Abdi

7. Mohamed Farah Weyne

8. Amir Haji Dirir

9. Mohamud Hassan Ciiro

LIST D: Names of the civilians butchered By SNM at Ceel Buh on February 1991

  1. Mohamed Abdalla Ali
  2. Musa Ali Tirik
  3. Abdullahi Ciisa Hassan
  4. Ali Mohamed Yusuf
  5. Abdi Mahamud Gaafaadhe
  6. Ali Osman Salah
  7. Osman Salah Farah
  8. Abshir Haji Ashuur
  9. Hassan Haji Isse
  10. Mohamed Isse Anshah
  11. Anjeeh Hidig
  12. Abdullahi J. Mohamud
  13. Said Musa Mohamed
  14. Mahamud M. Adan Gas
  15. Ahmed Yusuf Fadhfadh
  16. . Abdirasak Farah Dhiil
  17. Ibrahim Said Toohyare
  18. Mohamed Mohamud Jibril Ali

LIST E: Names of some of the civilians killed by SNM at Hadaaftimo Town on March 1991

1.Chief Mohamed Omar Arap

2. Ali Shire Dhuub

3. Mahamed Hassan Salad

4. Chief Mahamed Hassan Salah

5. Chief Musa Nuh Ahmed

6. Jama Ismail Tuke

7. Mohamud Said Noor

8. Daar Qoodar Mahamed

9. Ali Arale Guulwade

10. Ahmed Mohamud Shirbayye

11. Bakayle Mohamud Gaafaadhi

12. Ali Mahamed J. Aafi

13. Ali M. Timajilic

14. Abdi Mohamud Abdi Gaafaadhi

15. Hadhiwa Osman Yusuf

16. Musa A. Bahdoon

17. Ahmed Osman Mahamed

18. Abdillahi Mohamed Abdalla Dabshid

19. Soobe Hassan Salad

20. Abdillahi Nur Jibril

21. Abdillahi Ahmed Muse

22. Hassan Said Qaaje

23. Mohamed Yassin Farah Arab

24. Ina Adan Dheere, 12 year old

25. Mohamed Aki Daar

26. Ali Jama Guxrey

LIST F: Names of civilians killed by SNM at DAMALA Hagare on May 1991

Mohamed Adan Samakab, Bihidoor

2. Jama Hassan Nur, Bihidoor

3. Jama Mohamed Salah Egal, Bihidoor

4. Yassin Warsame Ali Shire, Bihidoor

5. Abdi Ali Jama Osman, Bihidoor

6. Ali Mohamed Hassan Shide, Bihidoor

7. Ahmed Jama Qodah, Bihidoor

8. Abdullahi Mohamed Hirad, Bihidoor

9. Iman Mohamed Farah, Bihidoor

10. Said Ahmed Mohamed Abdalle, Bihidoor

11. Omar Abdi Warsame Ali, Bihidoor

12. Mohamud Warsame Ali, Bihidoor

13. Mohamed Salad Warsame Ali Gaban, Bihidoor

14. Abdi Farah Dariqo, Reer Salah

15. Mohamud Mohamed Guled, Reer Salah

16. Musa Ali Abokor, Reer Salah

17. Ahmed Musa Duale, Reer Salah

18. Said Farah Guled, Reer Salah

19. Ahmed Warsame Shirdon, Reer Salah

20. Osman Mohamed Jama Salah, Reer Salah

21. Abdullahi Ismail Ali Gurey, Reer Salah

22. Ali Abdi Ahmed Tuuryare, Reer Salah

23. Jama Hersi Dhunkal, Warlabe

24. Osman Mire Jama Gesod, Warlabe

25. Said Farah Omar, Reer Haji

26. Abdi Farah Weyne, Bah Yabare

27. Awad Muse Egal, Reer Muhumud

LIST G: Names of Those Sustaining Serious Injuries At Damala Hagar on May 1991

1Mohamud Boqole, Bihidoor

2. Ahmed Mohamud Farah Said, Bihidoor

3. Hassan Ahmed Mohamed Muse, Bihidoor

4. Ali Muse Ali Arre, Bihidoor

5. Osman Said Nur, Bihidoor

6. Abdi Farah Warsame, Bihidoor

7. Mohamed Hassan Deal, Bihidoor

8. Amin Farah Ahmed ,Bihidoor

9. Warsame Ali Ibrahim, Bihidoor

10. Said Abdullahi Ali Jarafle, Bihidoor

11. Bashir Jama Nur, Reer Salah

12. Abdi Muse Mohamed, Reer Salah

13. Ali Ahmed Ali, Reer Salah

14. Said Warsame Ismail, Reer Salah

15. Ali Mohamed Farah Matan, Reer Salah

16. Sadiq Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamud, Reer Haji

17. Abdi Said Yusuf Shide, Jibril Said

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